Samuel G. Armato

Associate Professor
Research Summary
I have established my career through the development and evaluation of computerized techniques for the quantitative analysis of medical images and the assessment of tumor response to therapy. More specifically, my research has involved the computerized detection and evaluation of lung nodules in thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans, the assessment of image quality and pathologic change in temporally subtracted chest radiographic images, the computerized evaluation of mesothelioma tumor and response to therapy in CT scans, critical analyses of image-based tumor response assessment for mesothelioma, the development of objective CT-based metrics for the quantification of mucosal inflammation due to sinusitis, the application of radiomics to the pre- and post-treatment CT scans of radiation therapy patients to predict normal lung tissue complications, and the evaluation of reference standards for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) research. As the local principal investigator for the Lung Image Database Consortium project that spanned 10 years and as the faculty director of the University of Chicago’s Human Imaging Research Office, I have extensive experience with interdisciplinary and multi-institutional image-based projects.
Keywords
medical image analysis, computer-aided diagnosis, computer vision, computed tomography (CT), mesothelioma, lung cancer, lung imaging, chest radiography, medical physics, imaging physics
Education
  • The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, Ph.D. Medical Physics 06/1997
  • The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, B.A. Physics 06/1987
Awards & Honors
  • 2002 - Kurt Rossmann Award for Excellence in Medical Physics Teaching The University of Chicago
  • 2009 - Raine Visiting Professor University of Western Australia
  • 2012 - Kurt Rossmann Award for Excellence in Medical Physics Teaching The University of Chicago
  • 2014 - Fellow American Association of Physicists in Medicine
  • 2016 - Distinguished Investigator Academy of Radiology Research
  • 2018 - Fellow Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Publications
  1. Li F, Armato SG, Engelmann R, Rhines T, Crosby J, Lan L, Giger ML, MacMahon H. Anatomic Point-Based Lung Region with Zone Identification for Radiologist Annotation and Machine Learning for Chest Radiographs. J Digit Imaging. 2021 Aug; 34(4):922-931. View in: PubMed

  2. Budzikowski JD, Foy JJ, Rashid AA, Chung JH, Noth I, Armato SG. Radiomics-based assessment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is associated with genetic mutations and patient survival. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2021 May; 8(3):031903. View in: PubMed

  3. Avila RS, Fain SB, Hatt C, Armato SG, Mulshine JL, Gierada D, Silva M, Lynch DA, Hoffman EA, Ranallo FN, Mayo JR, Yankelevitz D, Estepar RSJ, Subramaniam R, Henschke CI, Guimaraes A, Sullivan DC. QIBA guidance: Computed tomography imaging for COVID-19 quantitative imaging applications. Clin Imaging. 2021 Sep; 77:151-157. View in: PubMed

  4. Foy JJ, Shenouda M, Ramahi S, Armato S, Ginat DT. Effect of an iterative reconstruction quantum noise reduction technique on computed tomography radiomic features. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2020 Nov; 7(6):064007. View in: PubMed

  5. Armato SG. Deep Learning Demonstrates Potential for Lung Cancer Detection in Chest Radiography. Radiology. 2020 12; 297(3):697-698. View in: PubMed

  6. Deshpande P, Rasin A, Son J, Kim S, Brown E, Furst J, Raicu DS, Montner SM, Armato SG. Ontology-Based Radiology Teaching File Summarization, Coverage, and Integration. J Digit Imaging. 2020 06; 33(3):797-813. View in: PubMed

  7. Foy JJ, Armato SG, Al-Hallaq HA. Effects of variability in radiomics software packages on classifying patients with radiation pneumonitis. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2020 Jan; 7(1):014504. View in: PubMed

  8. Armato SG, Farahani K, Zaidi H. Biomedical image analysis challenges should be considered as an academic exercise, not an instrument that will move the field forward in a real, practical way. Med Phys. 2020 Jun; 47(6):2325-2328. View in: PubMed

  9. Gudmundsson E, Straus CM, Li F, Armato SG. Deep learning-based segmentation of malignant pleural mesothelioma tumor on computed tomography scans: application to scans demonstrating pleural effusion. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2020 Jan; 7(1):012705. View in: PubMed

  10. Buikhuisen WA, Qayyum F, Armato SG, Baas P. Optimization of response classification criteria for patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma, a validation study. Lung Cancer. 2019 12; 138:139-140. View in: PubMed

  11. MacMahon H, Li F, Jiang Y, Armato SG. Response. Chest. 2019 10; 156(4):810-811. View in: PubMed

  12. Nicholson AG, Sauter JL, Nowak AK, Kindler HL, Gill RR, Remy-Jardin M, Armato SG, Fernandez-Cuesta L, Bueno R, Alcala N, Foll M, Pass H, Attanoos R, Baas P, Beasley MB, Brcic L, Butnor KJ, Chirieac LR, Churg A, Courtiol P, Dacic S, De Perrot M, Frauenfelder T, Gibbs A, Hirsch FR, Hiroshima K, Husain A, Klebe S, Lantuejoul S, Moreira A, Opitz I, Perol M, Roden A, Roggli V, Scherpereel A, Tirode F, Tazelaar H, Travis WD, Tsao MS, van Schil P, Vignaud JM, Weynand B, Lang-Lazdunski L, Cree I, Rusch VW, Girard N, Galateau-Salle F. EURACAN/IASLC Proposals for Updating the Histologic Classification of Pleural Mesothelioma: Towards a More Multidisciplinary Approach. J Thorac Oncol. 2020 01; 15(1):29-49. View in: PubMed

  13. Gill RR, Tsao AS, Kindler HL, Richards WG, Armato SG, Francis RJ, Gomez DR, Dahlberg S, Rimner A, Simone CB, de Perrot M, Blumenthal G, Adjei AA, Bueno R, Harpole DH, Hesdorffer M, Hirsch FR, Pass HI, Yorke E, Rosenzweig K, Burt B, Fennell DA, Lindwasser W, Malik S, Peikert T, Mansfield AS, Salgia R, Yang H, Rusch VW, Nowak AK. Radiologic Considerations and Standardization of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Imaging Within Clinical Trials: Consensus Statement from the NCI Thoracic Malignancy Steering Committee - International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer - Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation Clinical Trials Planning Meeting. J Thorac Oncol. 2019 10; 14(10):1718-1731. View in: PubMed

  14. Gruszauskas NP, Armato SG. Critical Challenges to the Management of Clinical Trial Imaging: Recommendations for the Conduct of Imaging at Investigational Sites. Acad Radiol. 2020 02; 27(2):300-306. View in: PubMed

  15. MacMahon H, Li F, Jiang Y, Armato SG. Accuracy of the Vancouver Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Model Compared With That of Radiologists. Chest. 2019 07; 156(1):112-119. View in: PubMed

  16. Armato SG, Francis RJ, Katz SI, Ak G, Opitz I, Gudmundsson E, Blyth KG, Gupta A. Imaging in pleural mesothelioma: A review of the 14th International Conference of the International Mesothelioma Interest Group. Lung Cancer. 2019 04; 130:108-114. View in: PubMed

  17. Foy JJ, Robinson KR, Li H, Giger ML, Al-Hallaq H, Armato SG. Variation in algorithm implementation across radiomics software. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2018 Oct; 5(4):044505. View in: PubMed

  18. Armato SG, Huisman H, Drukker K, Hadjiiski L, Kirby JS, Petrick N, Redmond G, Giger ML, Cha K, Mamonov A, Kalpathy-Cramer J, Farahani K. PROSTATEx Challenges for computerized classification of prostate lesions from multiparametric magnetic resonance images. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2018 Oct; 5(4):044501. View in: PubMed

  19. Gudmundsson E, Straus CM, Armato SG. Deep convolutional neural networks for the automated segmentation of malignant pleural mesothelioma on computed tomography scans. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2018 Jul; 5(3):034503. View in: PubMed

  20. Li F, Ahmad M, Qayyum F, Straus CM, MacMahon H, Kindler H, Armato SG. Correlation of patient survival with clinical tumor measurements in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Eur Radiol. 2019 Jun; 29(6):2981-2988. View in: PubMed

  21. Sokol EA, Engelmann R, Kang W, Pinto N, Starkey A, Lai H, Nadel H, Shulkin BL, Pu Y, Appelbaum D, Yanik GA, Cohn SL, Armato SG, Volchenboum S. Computer-assisted Curie scoring for metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scans in patients with neuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2018 12; 65(12):e27417. View in: PubMed

  22. Yang J, Veeraraghavan H, Armato SG, Farahani K, Kirby JS, Kalpathy-Kramer J, van Elmpt W, Dekker A, Han X, Feng X, Aljabar P, Oliveira B, van der Heyden B, Zamdborg L, Lam D, Gooding M, Sharp GC. Autosegmentation for thoracic radiation treatment planning: A grand challenge at AAPM 2017. Med Phys. 2018 Oct; 45(10):4568-4581. View in: PubMed

  23. Armato SG, Nowak AK. Revised Modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors for Assessment of Response in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (Version 1.1). J Thorac Oncol. 2018 07; 13(7):1012-1021. View in: PubMed

  24. Armato SG, Williamson JF. Initial experience with AAPM's new publisher. Med Phys. 2018 Mar; 45(3):995-996. View in: PubMed

  25. Kindler HL, Ismaila N, Armato SG, Bueno R, Hesdorffer M, Jahan T, Jones CM, Miettinen M, Pass H, Rimner A, Rusch V, Sterman D, Thomas A, Hassan R. Treatment of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Oncol. 2018 05 01; 36(13):1343-1373. View in: PubMed

  26. Lim S, Ramirez MV, Garneau JC, Ford MK, McKeough K, Ginat DT, Baroody FM, Armato SG, Pinto JM. Three-dimensional image analysis for staging chronic rhinosinusitis. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2017 11; 7(11):1052-1057. View in: PubMed

  27. Rydzak CE, Armato SG, Avila RS, Mulshine JL, Yankelevitz DF, Gierada DS. Quality assurance and quantitative imaging biomarkers in low-dose CT lung cancer screening. Br J Radiol. 2018 Oct; 91(1090):20170401. View in: PubMed

  28. Armato S, Hendee W, Marshall C, Curran B. WE-F-211-01: The Evolving Landscape of Scientific Publishing. Med Phys. 2012 Jun; 39(6Part27):3963. View in: PubMed

  29. Ozturk N, Armato S, Giger ML, Serago C, Ross LF. SU-E-E-03: Ethics and Professionalism Education in Medical Physics: A Needs Assessment Study. Med Phys. 2012 Jun; 39(6Part3):3623-3624. View in: PubMed

  30. Armato SG, Drukker K, Li F, Hadjiiski L, Tourassi GD, Engelmann RM, Giger ML, Redmond G, Farahani K, Kirby JS, Petrick NA. Letter to the Editor: Use of Publicly Available Image Resources. Acad Radiol. 2017 07; 24(7):916-917. View in: PubMed

  31. Anthony GJ, Cunliffe A, Castillo R, Pham N, Guerrero T, Armato SG, Al-Hallaq HA. Incorporation of pre-therapy 18 F-FDG uptake data with CT texture features into a radiomics model for radiation pneumonitis diagnosis. Med Phys. 2017 Jul; 44(7):3686-3694. View in: PubMed

  32. Armato SG, Drukker K, Li F, Hadjiiski L, Tourassi GD, Engelmann RM, Giger ML, Redmond G, Farahani K, Kirby JS, Clarke LP. LUNGx Challenge for computerized lung nodule classification. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2016 Oct; 3(4):044506. View in: PubMed

  33. Oxnard GR, Armato SG, Salgia R, Kindler HL. Development of response criteria for mesothelioma based on a mathematical model. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jun; 23(16_suppl):7176. View in: PubMed

  34. Armato SG, Blyth KG, Keating JJ, Katz S, Tsim S, Coolen J, Gudmundsson E, Opitz I, Nowak AK. Imaging in pleural mesothelioma: A review of the 13th International Conference of the International Mesothelioma Interest Group. Lung Cancer. 2016 11; 101:48-58. View in: PubMed

  35. Li F, Armato SG, Giger ML, MacMahon H. Clinical significance of noncalcified lung nodules in patients with breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016 Sep; 159(2):265-71. View in: PubMed

  36. Gill RR, Naidich DP, Mitchell A, Ginsberg M, Erasmus J, Armato SG, Straus C, Katz S, Patios D, Richards WG, Rusch VW. North American Multicenter Volumetric CT Study for Clinical Staging of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Feasibility and Logistics of Setting Up a Quantitative Imaging Study. J Thorac Oncol. 2016 08; 11(8):1335-1344. View in: PubMed

  37. Armato SG, Mills MD. The Business of Scientific Publishing. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2016 01 08; 17(1):1-3. View in: PubMed

  38. Armato SG, Coolen J, Nowak AK, Robinson C, Gill RR, Straus C, Khanwalkar A. Imaging in pleural mesothelioma: A review of the 12th International Conference of the International Mesothelioma Interest Group. Lung Cancer. 2015 Nov; 90(2):148-54. View in: PubMed

  39. Armato SG, Hadjiiski L, Tourassi GD, Drukker K, Giger ML, Li F, Redmond G, Farahani K, Kirby JS, Clarke LP. LUNGx Challenge for computerized lung nodule classification: reflections and lessons learned. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2015 Apr; 2(2):020103. View in: PubMed

  40. Garneau J, Ramirez M, Armato SG, Sensakovic WF, Ford MK, Poon CS, Ginat DT, Starkey A, Baroody FM, Pinto JM. Computer-assisted staging of chronic rhinosinusitis correlates with symptoms. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2015 Jul; 5(7):637-642. View in: PubMed

  41. Mulshine JL, Gierada DS, Armato SG, Avila RS, Yankelevitz DF, Kazerooni EA, McNitt-Gray MF, Buckler AJ, Sullivan DC. Role of the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance in optimizing CT for the evaluation of lung cancer screen-detected nodules. J Am Coll Radiol. 2015 Apr; 12(4):390-5. View in: PubMed

  42. Cunliffe AR, White B, Justusson J, Straus C, Malik R, Al-Hallaq HA, Armato SG. Comparison of Two Deformable Registration Algorithms in the Presence of Radiologic Change Between Serial Lung CT Scans. J Digit Imaging. 2015 Dec; 28(6):755-60. View in: PubMed

  43. Niehaus R, Raicu DS, Furst J, Armato S. Toward Understanding the Size Dependence of Shape Features for Predicting Spiculation in Lung Nodules for Computer-Aided Diagnosis. J Digit Imaging. 2015 Dec; 28(6):704-17. View in: PubMed

  44. Cunliffe A, Armato SG, Castillo R, Pham N, Guerrero T, Al-Hallaq HA. Lung texture in serial thoracic computed tomography scans: correlation of radiomics-based features with radiation therapy dose and radiation pneumonitis development. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015 Apr 01; 91(5):1048-56. View in: PubMed

  45. Armato SG, Li P, Husain AN, Straus C, Khanwalkar A, Kindler HL, Vigneswaran WT. Radiologic-pathologic correlation of mesothelioma tumor volume. Lung Cancer. 2015 Mar; 87(3):278-82. View in: PubMed

  46. Li F, Engelmann R, Armato SG, MacMahon H. Computer-aided nodule detection system: results in an unselected series of consecutive chest radiographs. Acad Radiol. 2015 Apr; 22(4):475-80. View in: PubMed

  47. Armato SG, Nowak AK, Francis RJ, Kocherginsky M, Byrne MJ. Observer variability in mesothelioma tumor thickness measurements: defining minimally measurable lesions. J Thorac Oncol. 2014 Aug; 9(8):1187-94. View in: PubMed

  48. Cunliffe AR, Armato SG, Straus C, Malik R, Al-Hallaq HA. Lung texture in serial thoracic CT scans: correlation with radiologist-defined severity of acute changes following radiation therapy. Phys Med Biol. 2014 Sep 21; 59(18):5387-98. View in: PubMed

  49. Corson N, Armato SG, Labby ZE, Straus C, Starkey A, Gomberg-Maitland M. CT-based pulmonary artery measurements for the assessment of pulmonary hypertension. Acad Radiol. 2014 Apr; 21(4):523-30. View in: PubMed

  50. Armato SG, Labby ZE, Coolen J, Klabatsa A, Feigen M, Persigehl T, Gill RR. Imaging in pleural mesothelioma: a review of the 11th International Conference of the International Mesothelioma Interest Group. Lung Cancer. 2013 Nov; 82(2):190-6. View in: PubMed

  51. Petrick N, Sahiner B, Armato SG, Bert A, Correale L, Delsanto S, Freedman MT, Fryd D, Gur D, Hadjiiski L, Huo Z, Jiang Y, Morra L, Paquerault S, Raykar V, Samuelson F, Summers RM, Tourassi G, Yoshida H, Zheng B, Zhou C, Chan HP. Evaluation of computer-aided detection and diagnosis systems. Med Phys. 2013 Aug; 40(8):087001. View in: PubMed

  52. Labby ZE, Straus C, Caligiuri P, MacMahon H, Li P, Funaki A, Kindler HL, Armato SG. Variability of tumor area measurements for response assessment in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Med Phys. 2013 Aug; 40(8):081916. View in: PubMed

  53. Huo Z, Summers RM, Paquerault S, Lo J, Hoffmeister J, Armato SG, Freedman MT, Lin J, Lo SC, Petrick N, Sahiner B, Fryd D, Yoshida H, Chan HP. Quality assurance and training procedures for computer-aided detection and diagnosis systems in clinical use. Med Phys. 2013 Jul; 40(7):077001. View in: PubMed

  54. Cunliffe AR, Armato SG, Fei XM, Tuohy RE, Al-Hallaq HA. Lung texture in serial thoracic CT scans: registration-based methods to compare anatomically matched regions. Med Phys. 2013 Jun; 40(6):061906. View in: PubMed

  55. Ozturk N, Armato SG, Giger ML, Serago CF, Ross LF. Ethics and professionalism in medical physics: a survey of AAPM members. Med Phys. 2013 Apr; 40(4):047001. View in: PubMed

  56. Labby ZE, Armato SG, Dignam JJ, Straus C, Kindler HL, Nowak AK. Lung volume measurements as a surrogate marker for patient response in malignant pleural mesothelioma. J Thorac Oncol. 2013 Apr; 8(4):478-86. View in: PubMed

  57. Hendee W, Armato S. Medical physics becomes a hybrid gold open-access journal. Med Phys. 2013 Jan; 40(1):010401. View in: PubMed

  58. Labby ZE, Nowak AK, Dignam JJ, Straus C, Kindler HL, Armato SG. Disease volumes as a marker for patient response in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Ann Oncol. 2013 Apr; 24(4):999-1005. View in: PubMed

  59. Carey GB, Kazantsev S, Surati M, Rolle CE, Kanteti A, Sadiq A, Bahroos N, Raumann B, Madduri R, Dave P, Starkey A, Hensing T, Husain AN, Vokes EE, Vigneswaran W, Armato SG, Kindler HL, Salgia R. Utilisation of a thoracic oncology database to capture radiological and pathological images for evaluation of response to chemotherapy in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. BMJ Open. 2012; 2(5). View in: PubMed

  60. Mollberg NM, Parsad NM, Armato SG, Vigneswaran J, Kindler HL, Sensakovic WF, Salgia R, Silverstein JC, Vigneswaran WT. Three-dimensional stereoscopic volume rendering of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Int Surg. 2012 Jan-Mar; 97(1):65-70. View in: PubMed

  61. Labby ZE, Armato SG, Kindler HL, Dignam JJ, Hasani A, Nowak AK. Optimization of response classification criteria for patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. J Thorac Oncol. 2012 Nov; 7(11):1728-34. View in: PubMed

  62. Cunliffe AR, Al-Hallaq HA, Labby ZE, Pelizzari CA, Straus C, Sensakovic WF, Ludwig M, Armato SG. Lung texture in serial thoracic CT scans: assessment of change introduced by image registration. Med Phys. 2012 Aug; 39(8):4679-90. View in: PubMed

  63. Li F, Engelmann R, Pesce L, Armato SG, Macmahon H. Improved detection of focal pneumonia by chest radiography with bone suppression imaging. Eur Radiol. 2012 Dec; 22(12):2729-35. View in: PubMed

  64. Kindler HL, Karrison TG, Gandara DR, Lu C, Krug LM, Stevenson JP, Jänne PA, Quinn DI, Koczywas MN, Brahmer JR, Albain KS, Taber DA, Armato SG, Vogelzang NJ, Chen HX, Stadler WM, Vokes EE. Multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized phase II trial of gemcitabine/cisplatin plus bevacizumab or placebo in patients with malignant mesothelioma. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Jul 10; 30(20):2509-15. View in: PubMed

  65. Armato SG, Gruszauskas NP, Macmahon H, Torno MD, Li F, Engelmann RM, Starkey A, Pudela CL, Marino JS, Santiago F, Chang PJ, Giger ML. Research imaging in an academic medical center. Acad Radiol. 2012 Jun; 19(6):762-71. View in: PubMed

  66. Corson N, Sensakovic WF, Straus C, Starkey A, Armato SG. Characterization of mesothelioma and tissues present in contrast-enhanced thoracic CT scans. Med Phys. 2011 Feb; 38(2):942-7. View in: PubMed

  67. Armato SG, McLennan G, Bidaut L, McNitt-Gray MF, Meyer CR, Reeves AP, Zhao B, Aberle DR, Henschke CI, Hoffman EA, Kazerooni EA, MacMahon H, Van Beeke EJ, Yankelevitz D, Biancardi AM, Bland PH, Brown MS, Engelmann RM, Laderach GE, Max D, Pais RC, Qing DP, Roberts RY, Smith AR, Starkey A, Batrah P, Caligiuri P, Farooqi A, Gladish GW, Jude CM, Munden RF, Petkovska I, Quint LE, Schwartz LH, Sundaram B, Dodd LE, Fenimore C, Gur D, Petrick N, Freymann J, Kirby J, Hughes B, Casteele AV, Gupte S, Sallamm M, Heath MD, Kuhn MH, Dharaiya E, Burns R, Fryd DS, Salganicoff M, Anand V, Shreter U, Vastagh S, Croft BY. The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) and Image Database Resource Initiative (IDRI): a completed reference database of lung nodules on CT scans. Med Phys. 2011 Feb; 38(2):915-31. View in: PubMed

  68. Sensakovic WF, Armato SG, Straus C, Roberts RY, Caligiuri P, Starkey A, Kindler HL. Computerized segmentation and measurement of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Med Phys. 2011 Jan; 38(1):238-44. View in: PubMed

  69. Sensakovic WF, Armato SG, Starkey A, Kindler HL, Vigneswaran WT. Quantitative measurement of lung reexpansion in malignant pleural mesothelioma patients undergoing pleurectomy/decortication. Acad Radiol. 2011 Mar; 18(3):294-8. View in: PubMed

  70. Nowak AK, Armato SG, Ceresoli GL, Yildirim H, Francis RJ. Imaging in pleural mesothelioma: a review of imaging research presented at the 9th International Meeting of the International Mesothelioma Interest Group. Lung Cancer. 2010 Oct; 70(1):1-6. View in: PubMed

  71. Sensakovic WF, Starkey A, Roberts R, Straus C, Caligiuri P, Kocherginsky M, Armato SG. The influence of initial outlines on manual segmentation. Med Phys. 2010 May; 37(5):2153-8. View in: PubMed

  72. Armato SG, Sensakovic WF, Passen SJ, Engelmann R, MacMahon H. Temporal subtraction in chest radiography: mutual information as a measure of image quality. Med Phys. 2009 Dec; 36(12):5675-82. View in: PubMed

  73. McNitt-Gray MF, Bidaut LM, Armato SG, Meyer CR, Gavrielides MA, Fenimore C, McLennan G, Petrick N, Zhao B, Reeves AP, Beichel R, Kim HJ, Kinnard L. Computed tomography assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data, and error. Transl Oncol. 2009 Dec; 2(4):216-22. View in: PubMed

  74. MacMahon H, Armato SG. Temporal subtraction chest radiography. Eur J Radiol. 2009 Nov; 72(2):238-43. View in: PubMed

  75. Sensakovic WF, Starkey A, Armato SG. A modified gradient correlation filter for image segmentation: application to airway and bowel. Med Phys. 2009 Feb; 36(2):480-5. View in: PubMed

  76. Armato SG, Roberts RY, Kocherginsky M, Aberle DR, Kazerooni EA, Macmahon H, van Beek EJ, Yankelevitz D, McLennan G, McNitt-Gray MF, Meyer CR, Reeves AP, Caligiuri P, Quint LE, Sundaram B, Croft BY, Clarke LP. Assessment of radiologist performance in the detection of lung nodules: dependence on the definition of "truth". Acad Radiol. 2009 Jan; 16(1):28-38. View in: PubMed

  77. Faoro L, Hutto JY, Salgia R, El-Zayaty SA, Ferguson MK, Cheney RT, Reid ME, Armato SG, Krausz T, Husain AN. Lymphatic vessel density is not associated with lymph node metastasis in non-small cell lung carcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2008 Dec; 132(12):1882-8. View in: PubMed

  78. Armato SG, van Ginneken B. Anniversary paper: image processing and manipulation through the pages of Medical Physics. Med Phys. 2008 Oct; 35(10):4488-500. View in: PubMed

  79. Sensakovic WF, Starkey A, Roberts RY, Armato SG. Discrete-space versus continuous-space lesion boundary and area definitions. Med Phys. 2008 Sep; 35(9):4070-8. View in: PubMed

  80. Armato SG, Meyer CR, Mcnitt-Gray MF, McLennan G, Reeves AP, Croft BY, Clarke LP. The Reference Image Database to Evaluate Response to therapy in lung cancer (RIDER) project: a resource for the development of change-analysis software. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Oct; 84(4):448-56. View in: PubMed

  81. MacMahon H, Li F, Engelmann R, Roberts R, Armato S. Dual energy subtraction and temporal subtraction chest radiography. J Thorac Imaging. 2008 May; 23(2):77-85. View in: PubMed

  82. Suzuki K, Yoshida H, Näppi J, Armato SG, Dachman AH. Mixture of expert 3D massive-training ANNs for reduction of multiple types of false positives in CAD for detection of polyps in CT colonography. Med Phys. 2008 Feb; 35(2):694-703. View in: PubMed

  83. Armato SG, Entwisle J, Truong MT, Nowak AK, Ceresoli GL, Zhao B, Misri R, Kindler HL. Current state and future directions of pleural mesothelioma imaging. Lung Cancer. 2008 Mar; 59(3):411-20. View in: PubMed

  84. Reeves AP, Biancardi AM, Apanasovich TV, Meyer CR, MacMahon H, van Beek EJ, Kazerooni EA, Yankelevitz D, McNitt-Gray MF, McLennan G, Armato SG, Henschke CI, Aberle DR, Croft BY, Clarke LP. The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): a comparison of different size metrics for pulmonary nodule measurements. Acad Radiol. 2007 Dec; 14(12):1475-85. View in: PubMed

  85. McNitt-Gray MF, Armato SG, Meyer CR, Reeves AP, McLennan G, Pais RC, Freymann J, Brown MS, Engelmann RM, Bland PH, Laderach GE, Piker C, Guo J, Towfic Z, Qing DP, Yankelevitz DF, Aberle DR, van Beek EJ, MacMahon H, Kazerooni EA, Croft BY, Clarke LP. The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) data collection process for nodule detection and annotation. Acad Radiol. 2007 Dec; 14(12):1464-74. View in: PubMed

  86. Armato SG, Roberts RY, McNitt-Gray MF, Meyer CR, Reeves AP, McLennan G, Engelmann RM, Bland PH, Aberle DR, Kazerooni EA, MacMahon H, van Beek EJ, Yankelevitz D, Croft BY, Clarke LP. The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): ensuring the integrity of expert-defined "truth". Acad Radiol. 2007 Dec; 14(12):1455-63. View in: PubMed

  87. Armato SG, McNitt-Gray MF, Reeves AP, Meyer CR, McLennan G, Aberle DR, Kazerooni EA, MacMahon H, van Beek EJ, Yankelevitz D, Hoffman EA, Henschke CI, Roberts RY, Brown MS, Engelmann RM, Pais RC, Piker CW, Qing D, Kocherginsky M, Croft BY, Clarke LP. The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): an evaluation of radiologist variability in the identification of lung nodules on CT scans. Acad Radiol. 2007 Nov; 14(11):1409-21. View in: PubMed

  88. Sensakovic WF, Starkey A, Armato SG. Two-dimensional extrapolation methods for texture analysis on CT scans. Med Phys. 2007 Sep; 34(9):3465-72. View in: PubMed

  89. Sensakovic WF, Armato SG, Starkey A, Caligiuri P. Automated lung segmentation of diseased and artifact-corrupted magnetic resonance sections. Med Phys. 2006 Sep; 33(9):3085-93. View in: PubMed

  90. Meyer CR, Johnson TD, McLennan G, Aberle DR, Kazerooni EA, Macmahon H, Mullan BF, Yankelevitz DF, van Beek EJ, Armato SG, McNitt-Gray MF, Reeves AP, Gur D, Henschke CI, Hoffman EA, Bland PH, Laderach G, Pais R, Qing D, Piker C, Guo J, Starkey A, Max D, Croft BY, Clarke LP. Evaluation of lung MDCT nodule annotation across radiologists and methods. Acad Radiol. 2006 Oct; 13(10):1254-65. View in: PubMed

  91. Armato SG, Doshi DJ, Engelmann R, Caligiuri P, MacMahon H. Temporal subtraction of dual-energy chest radiographs. Med Phys. 2006 Jun; 33(6):1911-9. View in: PubMed

  92. Armato SG, Doshi DJ, Engelmann R, Croteau CL, MacMahon H. Temporal subtraction in chest radiography: automated assessment of registration accuracy. Med Phys. 2006 May; 33(5):1239-49. View in: PubMed

  93. Roy AS, Armato SG, Wilson A, Drukker K. Automated detection of lung nodules in CT scans: false-positive reduction with the radial-gradient index. Med Phys. 2006 Apr; 33(4):1133-40. View in: PubMed

  94. Armato SG, Ogarek JL, Starkey A, Vogelzang NJ, Kindler HL, Kocherginsky M, MacMahon H. Variability in mesothelioma tumor response classification. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006 Apr; 186(4):1000-6. View in: PubMed

  95. Oxnard GR, Armato SG, Kindler HL. Modeling of mesothelioma growth demonstrates weaknesses of current response criteria. Lung Cancer. 2006 May; 52(2):141-8. View in: PubMed

  96. Armato SG, Oxnard GR. The radiologic measurement of mesothelioma. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2005 Dec; 19(6):1053-66, vi. View in: PubMed

  97. Armato SG, Oxnard GR, Kocherginsky M, Vogelzang NJ, Kindler HL, MacMahon H. Evaluation of semiautomated measurements of mesothelioma tumor thickness on CT scans. Acad Radiol. 2005 Oct; 12(10):1301-9. View in: PubMed

  98. Armato SG. Computerized analysis of mesothelioma on CT scans. Lung Cancer. 2005 Jul; 49 Suppl 1:S41-4. View in: PubMed

  99. Agam G, Armato SG, Wu C. Vessel tree reconstruction in thoracic CT scans with application to nodule detection. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2005 Apr; 24(4):486-99. View in: PubMed

  100. Armato SG, Roy AS, Macmahon H, Li F, Doi K, Sone S, Altman MB. Evaluation of automated lung nodule detection on low-dose computed tomography scans from a lung cancer screening program(1). Acad Radiol. 2005 Mar; 12(3):337-46. View in: PubMed

  101. Sensakovic WF, Armato SG, Starkey A, Ogarek JL. Automated matching of temporally sequential CT sections. Med Phys. 2004 Dec; 31(12):3417-24. View in: PubMed

  102. Armato SG, Sensakovic WF. Automated lung segmentation for thoracic CT impact on computer-aided diagnosis. Acad Radiol. 2004 Sep; 11(9):1011-21. View in: PubMed

  103. Armato SG, McLennan G, McNitt-Gray MF, Meyer CR, Yankelevitz D, Aberle DR, Henschke CI, Hoffman EA, Kazerooni EA, MacMahon H, Reeves AP, Croft BY, Clarke LP. Lung image database consortium: developing a resource for the medical imaging research community. Radiology. 2004 Sep; 232(3):739-48. View in: PubMed

  104. Armato SG, Oxnard GR, MacMahon H, Vogelzang NJ, Kindler HL, Kocherginsky M, Starkey A. Measurement of mesothelioma on thoracic CT scans: a comparison of manual and computer-assisted techniques. Med Phys. 2004 May; 31(5):1105-15. View in: PubMed

  105. Dodd LE, Wagner RF, Armato SG, McNitt-Gray MF, Beiden S, Chan HP, Gur D, McLennan G, Metz CE, Petrick N, Sahiner B, Sayre J. Assessment methodologies and statistical issues for computer-aided diagnosis of lung nodules in computed tomography: contemporary research topics relevant to the lung image database consortium. Acad Radiol. 2004 Apr; 11(4):462-75. View in: PubMed

  106. Armato SG. Image annotation for conveying automated lung nodule detection results to radiologists. Acad Radiol. 2003 Sep; 10(9):1000-7. View in: PubMed

  107. Suzuki K, Armato SG, Li F, Sone S, Doi K. Massive training artificial neural network (MTANN) for reduction of false positives in computerized detection of lung nodules in low-dose computed tomography. Med Phys. 2003 Jul; 30(7):1602-17. View in: PubMed

  108. Armato SG, Altman MB, Wilkie J, Sone S, Li F, Doi K, Roy AS. Automated lung nodule classification following automated nodule detection on CT: a serial approach. Med Phys. 2003 Jun; 30(6):1188-97. View in: PubMed

  109. Armato SG, Altman MB, La Rivière PJ. Automated detection of lung nodules in CT scans: effect of image reconstruction algorithm. Med Phys. 2003 Mar; 30(3):461-72. View in: PubMed

  110. Armato SG, Li F, Giger ML, MacMahon H, Sone S, Doi K. Lung cancer: performance of automated lung nodule detection applied to cancers missed in a CT screening program. Radiology. 2002 Dec; 225(3):685-92. View in: PubMed

  111. Li F, Sone S, Abe H, MacMahon H, Armato SG, Doi K. Lung cancers missed at low-dose helical CT screening in a general population: comparison of clinical, histopathologic, and imaging findings. Radiology. 2002 Dec; 225(3):673-83. View in: PubMed

  112. Giger ML, Karssemeijer N, Armato SG. Computer-aided diagnosis in medical imaging. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2001 Dec; 20(12):1205-8. View in: PubMed

  113. Armato SG, Giger ML, MacMahon H. Automated detection of lung nodules in CT scans: preliminary results. Med Phys. 2001 Aug; 28(8):1552-61. View in: PubMed

  114. Armato SG, Giger ML, Chen CT, Vyborny CJ, Ryan J, MacMahon H. Automated registration of frontal and lateral radionuclide lung scans with digital chest radiographs. Acad Radiol. 2000 Jul; 7(7):530-9. View in: PubMed

  115. Armato SG, Giger ML, Moran CJ, Blackburn JT, Doi K, MacMahon H. Computerized detection of pulmonary nodules on CT scans. Radiographics. 1999 Sep-Oct; 19(5):1303-11. View in: PubMed

  116. Armato SG, Giger ML, MacMahon H. Computerized analysis of abnormal asymmetry in digital chest radiographs: evaluation of potential utility. J Digit Imaging. 1999 Feb; 12(1):34-42. View in: PubMed

  117. Armato SG, Giger ML, Ashizawa K, MacMahon H. Automated lung segmentation in digital lateral chest radiographs. Med Phys. 1998 Aug; 25(8):1507-20. View in: PubMed

  118. Armato SG, Giger ML, MacMahon H. Computerized delineation and analysis of costophrenic angles in digital chest radiographs. Acad Radiol. 1998 May; 5(5):329-35. View in: PubMed

  119. Armato SG, Giger ML, MacMahon H. Automated lung segmentation in digitized posteroanterior chest radiographs. Acad Radiol. 1998 Apr; 5(4):245-55. View in: PubMed

  120. Armato SG, Giger ML, MacMahon H, Chen CT, Vyborny CJ. Automated registration of ventilation-perfusion images with digital chest radiographs. Acad Radiol. 1997 Mar; 4(3):183-92. View in: PubMed

  121. Difazio MC, MacMahon H, Xu XW, Tsai P, Shiraishi J, Armato SG, Doi K. Digital chest radiography: effect of temporal subtraction images on detection accuracy. Radiology. 1997 Feb; 202(2):447-52. View in: PubMed